We've designed kube-vip to be as decoupled or agnostic from other components that may exist within a Kubernetes cluster as possible. This has lead to kube-vip having a very simplistic but robust approach to advertising Kubernetes Services to the outside world and marking these Services as ready to use.
Cloud Controller Manager
kube-vip isn't coupled to anything other than the Kubernetes API and will only act upon an existing Kubernetes primitive (in this case the object of type
Service). This makes it easy for existing cloud controller managers (CCMs) to simply apply their logic to services of type LoadBalancer and leave kube-vip to take the next steps to advertise these load balancers to the outside world.
Using the kube-vip Cloud Provider
The kube-vip cloud provider can be used to populate an IP address for Services of type
LoadBalancer similar to what public cloud providers allow through a Kubernetes CCM. The below instructions should just work on Kubernetes regardless of the architecture (a Linux OS being the only requirement) and will install the latest components.
Install the kube-vip Cloud Provider
The kube-vip cloud provider can be installed from the latest release in the
main branch by using the following command:
1kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kube-vip/kube-vip-cloud-provider/main/manifest/kube-vip-cloud-controller.yaml
Create a global CIDR or IP Range
In order for kube-vip to set an IP address for a Service of type
LoadBalancer, it needs to have an availability of IP address to assign. This information is stored in a Kubernetes ConfigMap to which kube-vip has access. You control the scope of the IP allocations with the
key within the ConfigMap. Either CIDR blocks or IP ranges may be specified and scoped either globally (cluster-side) or per-Namespace.
To allow a global (cluster-wide) CIDR block which kube-vip can use to allocate an IP to Services of type
LoadBalancer in any Namespace, create a ConfigMap named
kubevip with the key
cidr-global and value equal to a CIDR block available in your environment. For example, the below command creates a global CIDR with value
192.168.0.220/29 from which kube-vip will allocate IP addresses.
1kubectl create configmap -n kube-system kubevip --from-literal cidr-global=192.168.0.220/29
To use a global range instead, create the key
range-global with the value set to a valid range of IP addresses. For example, the below command creates a global range using the pool
1kubectl create configmap -n kube-system kubevip --from-literal range-global=192.168.1.220-192.168.1.230
Creating services of type
LoadBalancer in any Namespace will now take addresses from one of the global pools defined in the ConfigMap unless a Namespace-specific pool is created.
The kube-vip Cloud Provider ConfigMap
To manage the IP address ranges for Services of type
kube-vip-cloud-provider uses a ConfigMap held in the
kube-system Namespace. IP addresses can be configured using one or multiple formats:
- CIDR blocks
- IP ranges [start address - end address]
- Multiple pools by CIDR per Namespace
- Multiple IP ranges per Namespace (handles overlapping ranges)
- Setting of static addresses through --load-balancer-ip=x.x.x.x (
To control which IP address range is used for which Service, the following rules are applied:
- Global address pools (
range-global) are available for use by any Service in any Namespace
- Namespace specific address pools (
range-<namespace>) are only available for use by a Service in the specific Namespace
- Static IP addresses can be applied to a Service of type
spec.loadBalancerIPfield, even outside of the assigned ranges
1apiVersion: v1 2kind: ConfigMap 3metadata: 4 name: kubevip 5 namespace: kube-system 6data: 7 cidr-default: 192.168.0.200/29 # CIDR-based IP range for use in the default Namespace 8 range-development: 192.168.0.210-192.168.0.219 # Range-based IP range for use in the development Namespace 9 cidr-finance: 192.168.0.220/29,192.168.0.230/29 # Multiple CIDR-based ranges for use in the finance Namespace 10 cidr-global: 192.168.0.240/29 # CIDR-based range which can be used in any Namespace
Expose a Service
We can now expose a Service and once the cloud provider has provided an address, kube-vip will start to advertise that address to the outside world as shown below:
1kubectl expose deployment nginx-deployment --port=80 --type=LoadBalancer --name=nginx
or via a Service YAML definition:
1apiVersion: v1 2kind: Service 3metadata: 4 name: nginx 5spec: 6 ports: 7 - name: http 8 port: 80 9 protocol: TCP 10 selector: 11 app: nginx 12 type: LoadBalancer
We can also expose a specific address by specifying it imperatively on the command line:
1kubectl expose deployment nginx-deployment --port=80 --type=LoadBalancer --name=nginx --load-balancer-ip=22.214.171.124
or including it in the Service definition:
1apiVersion: v1 2kind: Service 3metadata: 4 name: nginx 5spec: 6 ports: 7 - name: http 8 port: 80 9 protocol: TCP 10 selector: 11 app: nginx 12 type: LoadBalancer 13 loadBalancerIP: "126.96.36.199"